Thursday, June 4, 2020

Symbolism in The Black Veil - Free Essay Example

Nathaniel Hawthorne was very craft in how he used symbolism and allegory in each of his short stories and novels. From the forest and Faiths pink ribbons in Young Goodman Brown, to Hester Prynes A in The Scarlet Letter, he had a way of using symbolism has an important feature throughout his works. One of the most iconic symbols in the story The Ministers Black Veil is the black veil itself, as it pertains to sins and lies. It shows the complicated dark and hidden side of man, along with the standards of his Puritan society and beliefs. Hawthorne uses the symbolism of the veil to represent the tension between both the minister and his community. When the minister first walks out of his home wearing the black veil, the townsfolk are astonished. The only reason as to why is because they dont know why Reverend Hooper is wearing it in the first place. There was but one thing remarkable about his appearance. Swathed about his forehead, and hanging down over his face so low as to be shaken by his breath, Mr. Hooper had on a black veil. On a nearer view it seemed to consist of two folds of crape, which entirely concealed his features, except the mouth and chin, but probably did not intercept his sight, further than to give a darkened aspect to all living and inanimate things. (pg. ) As a result of this, they begin to create their own mystery and speculations as to why he is wearing it. Theyre convincing themselves that the his hiding something, like a deformity of his face or a secret no one is supposed to know about. The veil is also creating a barrier between the townsfolk and the minister during his sermons, thus resulting in co ntroversy within the church itself. The sermon which he now delivered was marked by the same characteristics of style and manner as the general series of his pulpit oratory. But there was something, either in the sentiment of the discourse itself, or in the imagination of the auditors, which made it greatly the most powerful effort that had ever heard from their pastors lips. It was tinged, rather more darkly than usual, with the gentle gloom of Mr. Hoopers temperament. (pg. ) The minister himself thinks his veil hides his sin from the people, but hes doing more than that. He hides himself from his community, he hides himself from the woman he loves, hes become so ashamed of the sin he committed that he never takes the veil off. The black veil is the inherent symbol of the ministers sin, but it can also represent how terrible human nature can be. The black veil can represent the secret sin that, not just the minister, but everyone can carry with them. However there is also the assumption that it is a representation of a specific sin Reverend Hooper has committed, which is believed to be adultery, even though the exact sin is never mentioned. The evidence that Minister Hooper committed adultery is referenced in the beginning of the story with the young womans funeral, which is when the minister begins to wear the veil. The clergyman stepped into the room where the corpse was laid, and bent over the coffin, to take a last farewell of his deceased parishioner. As he stooped, the veil hung straight down from his forehead, so that, if her eyelids had not been closed forever, the dead maiden might have seen his face. Could Mr. Hooper be fearful of her glance, that he so hastily caught back the black veil? (pg. ) R everend Hooper also seems to be unable to tell his fiancee why wears the veil due to a promise that he made, and is not willing to show his face to her even in death. Have patience with me, Elizabeth! cried he, passionately. Do not desert me though this veil must be between us here on earth. Be mine, and hereafter there shall be no veil over my face, no darkness between our souls. It is but a mortal veil; it is not for eternity. Oh, you know not how lonely I am, and how frightened to be alone behind my black veil! (pg. ) In a different light, the black veil could represent the Puritans obsession with sin and sinfulness. The reactions to the ministers veil is one of annoyance and fear. Such was the effect of this simple piece of crape, that more than one woman of delicate nerves was forced to leave the meeting-house. Yet perhaps the pale-faced congregation was almost as fearful a sight to the minister, as his black veil to them. (pg. ) The one and only difference to the community liking the minister and not is a simple black veil covering his face. The townsfolk are being overly judgemental in nature in their belief on sin, for sinning was an undeniable mistake to them. Hawthorne wanted to show the most hardened of Puritan elders and their reaction to the minister is evidence of just how judgmental even the most seasoned religious person can be when it comes to someone or something different. Why do you tremble at me alone? cried he, turning his veiled face round the circle of pale spectators. Tremble also at each other. Have men avoided me and women shown no pity and children screamed and fled only for my black veil? What but the mystery which it obscurely typifies has made this piece of crape so awful? When the friend shows his inmost heart to his friend, the lover to his best-beloved; when man does not vainly shrink from the eye of his Creator, loathsomely treasuring up the secret of his sin,†then deem me a monster for the symbol beneath which I have lived and die. I look around me, and, lo! on every visage a black veil! The ministers black veil is a clear sign that he is trying to atone for a grave sin. Yet Reverend Hooper is implying that he intended for the veil to be a symbol of the general sinfulness of mankind and nothing specific. At that same time, the veil is a symbol of the superficiality of Puritan society. The townsfolk judge Hooper solely on his appearance, and not his behavior or character, implying that Hooper himself doesnt change after he puts on the veil, only seeming gloomier to them because of it covering his face. Its possible that these two interpretations could be one and the same: meaning the townsfolk focus on the veil because they recognize their own yet refuse to acknowledge it.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Response to The Damned and the Beautiful American Youth...

Paula Fass’s The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s delves into the social and cultural climate of the 1920’s middle-class youth in America. Fass observes the multidimensional dynamics of the post-World War I society as citizens adjust to pertinent matters such as industrialization, prohibition and immigration. Amidst the ongoing social, political and economical issues of the early twentieth century, youth played an active role in contemporary life. Adolescents responded to issues through altering their habits, behaviors and viewpoints. Their responses became evident in the public setting and American culture evolved. The transformation of American culture was spearheaded by youth who questioned and went against†¦show more content†¦Secondly, a wide range of economic classes and racial and ethnic groups attended schools. Thus, diverse groups with differing mannerism and outlooks blended in schools. These elements were key in producing a peer culture. The role of school in society was to provide skills and knowledge to students as well as socialize them. Students are spending more time at school and being surrounded by members of their age groups. Thus, schools and peers were the two major elements in adolescent’s social life. A peer society developed as youth created their own culture and enforced peer pressure for American youth. The peer society was especially noticeable on college campuses around the United States. On campuses, students made connections beyond the classroom. They shaped a youth culture shaped which consisted of their own slang, flapper fashion, fads, and music. Students were away from their home and community, so peers replaced family roles. Colleges and universities begin to defined the youth society. Students became consumers and mass production enabled conformity in fashion. Campus newspaper kept the youth informed on the latest trends and activities. College students were not directly supe rvised and enjoyed their leisure time by dancing, attending the movies, and dating. Students set morals in peer society and determined the proper way to behaviors. In the 1920, socialization was evident in student involvement.Show MoreRelatedEssay about The Razors Edge Study Guide23742 Words   |  95 Pageswith narrator and author W. Somerset Maugham admitting his apprehension at writing a story that doesnt have a clear ending and that takes place over a long interval. In the end, however, The Razors Edge delivers a compelling narrative that follows American Larry Darrells search for the answer to basic human questions about life and man in post−World War I America. Maugham, who takes an active role in the novel, meets Isabel and her fiancy, Larry, at the house of Louisa Bradley, a rich widow who isRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pagesbuilt-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Kim S. Cameron UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul SingaporeRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesand permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturersRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 PagesUniversity of Minnesota and George Washington University. His MBA and Ph.D. are from the University of Minnesota, with a BBA from Drake University. Before coming into academia, he spent thirteen years in retailing with the predecessor of Kmart (S. S. Kresge), JCPenney, and Dayton-Hudson and its Target subsidiary. He held positions in store management, central buying, and merchandise management. His first textbook, Marketing: Management and Social Change, was published in 1972. It was ahead

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Claims Put Forth By Henry Giroux - 1603 Words

In this paper I will take the claims put forth by Henry Giroux in his recent interview regarding the increasingly negative effects of neoliberalism, and as he calls it casino capitalism, across the world, particularly in the realm of education, and juxtapose them with various Marxist theories, displaying how the latter can be accurately applied in a thorough analysis of the former. More specifically, I will demonstrate how Marx’s theories dealing with Domination, Alienation, and Historical Materialism aptly tie to Giroux’s assertions. Giroux claims that the contemporary education system discourages the notion of true learning and critical thinking, and is instead a mere avenue that trains one for the inevitable workplace. I believe that†¦show more content†¦Capitalists realize the threat critical thinkers pose to their position, while at the same time recognize the ability of job-training based people to fuel their notion of an ideal society, and to ensure continued power, they use their vast control over educational institutions and the market to create conditions where job-training based education is favored over critical thinking enhancing education. The creation of such conditions has led to the emergence of dissimulation and a false consciousness , where people are deceived into taking as natural something that has in fact merely been created by other people: they truly believe they know what is best for them but this belief arises from an incomplete knowledge of the conditions shaping the world tha t surrounds them. I feel that it is this very illusory nature of capitalism that ensures its survival. Capitalism requires that a majority of the people will fail per se, so that there can be any success at all: a very real consequence from which the educational system fails to escape. A valid refutation of this argument can be that, although the logic of it is sound, it is still fundamentally based upon the assumption that people inclined towards the social sciences are inherently more inclined to pose a threat to the capitalist society. One may argue that anyone, regardless of their skill set, may or may not pose a disruption in

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Cognition, Memory and Perception free essay sample

Forgetting is the inability of a person to retrieve, recall or recognize information that was stored or still stored in long term memory. (McLeod, S. A. 2008). In terms of short term memory, forgetting is caused by interference between past and new information that most modern accounts that holding on to. In some older models, forgetting is explained using a process of passive deterioration of information. Comparing both accounts, interference seems to have a better explanation of forgetting. Secondly in terms of long term memory, forgetting occurs when one fails to remember and unable to reactivated the memory circuit of given information. In general, forgetting seems to happen in between short term and long term memory. It will occur when information is to be encoded or information is not linked to any memory circuit through interference. (â€Å"What is forgetting in psychology? †, 2008). However, nowadays, there are theories of forgetting in cognitive psychology that are still difficult to test by researches, because one may in fact not forget, but have trouble retrieving information from one’s memory storage. For examples, one forgets about an event such as attending a friend’s birthday party just because the individual were only remembering another event that is more important to him such as a wedding dinner. The examples of the theories of forgetting are encoding failure, decay theory, interference theory, retrieval failure, motivated forgetting and repression. The author of this paper will going to critically asses on the psychological theories on why people forget. According to Freud (1901), the father of the psychoanalytic school, believed that one will forget of what threatens them. For example, experiences that express in abusing, horrifying, hurtful, tense and ego-dissatisfying will pushed back to the unconscious. Based on the opinion of writer on this paper, it is not necessarily that one just forgets about what threatens them but also forgets the information that does not seem important to them. This scenario is similar to the theory of encoding failure whereas the particular information in short term memory that did not manage to encode in the long term memory and the information did not enter to the memory. Besides that, encoding failure also can be result of stress. Based on Yerkes-Dodson Law, too much stress results can cause performance to decline, sometimes sharply if cognitive or nervous breakdown is triggered. A downturn can also be caused by excessive attention to a task such that extra factors that are important get missed. Secondly, the decay theory, this theory suggests that memory traces in the brain will fade over time through lack of use and become inaccessible. Decay theory suggest that forgetting is a psychological process and it is an idea that when a memory has a physical or chemical trace of the experience in the brain when it is laid down. This traces will fade as time passes unless it is reinforced through repeated times of use. For example, when a person meets a new friend, the name of the friend is just like a trace to the brain. But when the person did not manage to meet up with that new friend for a few days, the name of the friend will slowly decay and might not recall it after. However, researchers have not shown that decay theory causes forgetting of something that is stored in the long term memory. In addition, based on the author’s opinion, memory such as driving skills, riding bicycle skills and swimming skills would not decay even though after a period of time, not every memory trace will fade over time. Some studies of the hippocampus have shown a pattern of rapid and then gradual decline of neutral pathways by Anderson (1995).Besides that, there are two types of the interference theory that is, proactive interference and retroactive interference. The definition of the proactive interference is when old information interferes with the new information that cause forgetting. Example of proactive interference theory is when a person who learned many formulas in additional mathematics for a year and learned new sets of formulas for modern mathematics for a month and the person will interfere with the knowledge of additional mathematics while doing modern mathematics. On the other hand, retroactive interference occurs when new information learned interfere with the old information that stored in the memory. Remembering the names of the new students by a lecturer is an example of retroactive interference where the new students name will nterfere with the names that were previously stored. However, researches pointed out that real life interference might not occur so readily. The retrieval failure theory was proposed by (Tulving amp; Thomson 1973). This theory is known as a cue dependent forgetting that explains forgetting as inability to retrieve material due to an absence of the right cues. In order that one person to retrieve information from the long-term memory, they must depend on the type of cue or prompt which they use and this theory explained that why sometimes that one who unable to remember the material that is certain in our memory. For example, a person cannot remember doing his homework until him or her saw the workbook on the table. This proves that the workbook provide the right retrieval cue. According to Freud (1901), the retrieval of the repressed memories is possible only under special circumstances using a few psychoanalytic techniques. On the other hand, there is a tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT) that could help one to retrieve forgotten memories. TOT is an example of how we intentionally search for cues that will prompt the retrieval of a specific memory. For example, a person that forgets their neighbor pet’s name and only remembers the dumbbell which hangs around the neck of the pet. By reading the word dumbbell, TOT assists the person to recall that the neighbor pet’s name was Dumble. Furthermore, the motivated forgetting is a case of retrieval failure referred to Freud, (1901). What it actually meant by motivated forgetting? According to Freud (1901), motivated forgetting is that we are motivated to forget the events or actions that is painful that cannot be solve in the memory by pushing it into the subconscious and actively repressing with it. In other words, these experiences are repressed in the unconscious and unable to retrieve when needed. Besides motivated forgetting causes oneself repression of memory, it is possible that one forgets is based on instructions of others and also known as the intentional forgetting or directed forgetting. Anderson, Baddeley and Eysenck (2009) stated that intentional forgetting also refers to forgetting which is initiated by a conscious goal to forget. McNally, Clancy, and Schacter (2001) also stated that loss of autobiographical memories, especially memories for unpleasant or disturbing events has used to explain the intentional forgetting. However, based on the author’s opinion, motivate forgetting on the memories of pain, unpleasant, and disturbing events are unhealthy to one’s body, physically and mentally. What if the capacity of the subconscious has a limit and it cannot continue to repress any more of the memory of negative events, it will causes an unwanted pressure and stress on the individual emotionally and lead to suicide if it reaches the limit. Last but not least, theory of repression, proposed by the psychologist Sigmund Freud. Freud (1901) stated that the unpleasant memories such as sexual abuse, bullying, torture or any traumatic experience which undergoes the psychological process which automatically and unconsciously prevents emotionally distressing memories from coming into our conscious awareness. In the event or experience in the present such as watching a video, hypnosis or hearing music may triggered the repressed memories back into conscious awareness. However, he stated that, repressed memories cannot deliberately bring back unless it was triggered. The memory researches pointed out that the retrieval memories come back into awareness through suggestion by the patient’s therapist in fact are false memories. In the nutshell, all the theories above that have discussed which are the encoding failure, decay theory, interference theory, retrieval failure, motivated forgetting and repression. Overview of this research, readers can determine that every theories of forgetting have relation between one another and it is all related to the short-term memory and long-term memory. If the short-term memory does not exist, there is no long-term memory. In the author’s point of view, some of the theories that have discussed above are too narrow in scope and did not manage to cover all the factors such as emotion of a person that will lead to forgetting. In the author’s opinion, every psychologist that is doing on the same research should investigate and plan the experiments together so that all the psychologists able to brainstorm on their findings and share their thoughts together in order to improve their theories. Besides that, I believe that, all the human being does not want to repress all those negatives events that had ever happened in their lives into their subconscious mind. This is because after repressing or suppressing those memories into the subconscious mind, it would not provide safety precautions in terms of physically and mentally to everyone. What if one day, one person those who suffer from sexual abuse and torture since childhood and triggered that memory back and do the same thing to others. This will lead to even more people suffers.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Sprite free essay sample

: # 8220 ; Image Is Everything? Essay, Research Paper # 8220 ; Image is Everything # 8221 ; # 8220 ; Thirst is Everything, Image is Nothing # 8221 ; we have all seen this motto slapped on to every one of Sprite # 8217 ; s merchandises for last twosome of months. But what does it intend? Does it intend that person at a Pepsi convention should order a Sprite, a Coke merchandise, merely cause they like the gustatory sensation? Of class non, do if they did they would acquire kicked out at the really least. Advertisers use this kind of motto to catch your attending, and so they have you right where they want. In the most recent Sprite commercials that characteristic Grant Hill of the Detroit Pistons, they show us that the ground why we would hold a Sprite is merely for the gustatory sensation of it. But if this was all they are seeking to acquire across to us wouldn # 8217 ; t it be cheaper and wiser to utilize a 6 dollar per hr child instead than a cat that won # 8217 ; t measure pes in a topographic point for less that a 100 expansive. We will write a custom essay sample on Sprite or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Why would they do a commercial that contradicts itself? The ground an advertizement would belie itself like this is for one ground merely, to seek and gull our wants and desires into going our demands. Our demands are merely something that is a necessity for us to last, such as nutrient and H2O. We all know we couldn # 8217 ; t travel long without these simple yet indispensable things. While our wants and desires for things such as five star eating houses and luxury autos. Which by no agencies are needed to last, but merely do populating all the more merriment. Advertisers are Masterss on how to work our desires, and to do us believe that they are our demands. And it is by no agency is this easy or inexpensive for a commercial to be able to make. To be able to do us believe that our life would, in some manner, be better with this merchandise by our side. Sprite # 8217 ; s commercial that plays every clip you blindly surf the telecasting channels are all about image. The commercial that is shown the most, characteristics Grant Hill imbibing a Sprite. While they province in the back unit of ammunition and print on the screen, # 8220 ; Thirst Is Everything, Image Is Nothing # 8221 ; . When I foremost saw this I was believing, # 8220 ; cool a great drink that anyone can hold and non look out of topographic point # 8221 ; . But the more I thought about it and saw the commercial clip and clip once more a couple things stuck in my caput. First of all that merely two words are emphasized, and are in all caps on the commercial. Know which 1s? Yeah you got it THIRST and IMAGE, for the ground that these are the two that they want you to retrieve. Thirst so that when you # 8217 ; re thirsty you # 8217 ; ll believe of Sprite as the lone 1 that can acquire the occupation done. Again traveling back to your demands , and doing you believe that Sprite is a necessity for your endurance. And Image so you know you’ll look good while you’re imbibing it, but isn’t this traveling against the â€Å"Image is nothing† ? I thought it was, so I watched it once more, and I noticed something else, when they say those two words on telecasting they increase in the volume, to stress them once more more than all the others. But it doesn’t terminal here they still have Hill in the commercial toss offing a 20 oz. after what we believe to be the hardest game of his life. Why you ask, because he is spose to be the mean hoops participant, on any given twenty-four hours. But if this were true, and he was an mean participant, so we would wholly be on a pro squad doing more money than we can number. But this isn’t true so we merely imbibe it with the hopes that if it helped Hill it can assist us excessively. The commercial attempts to play towards our maleness, harmonizing to the definition supplied by Diane Barthel. She says that advertizers use # 8220 ; power/ precision/ performance/ tallies as a subject throughout advertisement to work forces # 8221 ; ( p.123 ) . Now who could deny that Grant Hill is a show of this, full if non the perfect illustrations. But why would Sprite usage this catchy phrase if what they wanted to state what about the exact antonym. That image is everything ; good the lone ground I came up with was that they wanted to play to one of your necessities. You have to imbibe to last, if non we all know what happens, we would shrivel up and decease. But if they can do us believe, if merely for a 2nd, that we can fulfill that demand better over any other drink with Sprite, and that in kernel we have to hold some in order to last. Then advertizers have earned their money, because so I can # 8217 ; t possible think of a ground non to travel out and purchase some. Sprite has been around for many old ages and will go on to be merely by coming up with these tricky and clever commercials to sell their merchandise. Coming up with different ways to play to our demand to be excepted in a higher group, to last or our desire to experience dominance above others. But if the lone manner they have to travel about this is to pass 1000000s in fancy commercial to state us things that we don # 8217 ; t even recognize at first. Then we should be seeing a clump more of flashy and artless ways to do us desire things being shown between our favourite shows. All of them are demoing us a better life with a # 8220 ; sprite # 8221 ; or any other merchandise they might be selling. And even if this lone gets through to a fraction of the people, their occupation is done. Because that fraction is still 100s of 1000s of people purchasing their merchandise.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Sonya Sanchez essays

Sonya Sanchez essays To understand Sonia Sanchez, you must first understand her past to appreciate her drive toward the future. Sanchez, a militant and dominating voice in the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s, struggled through her early childhood while finding her voice when she needed it most. After her mother died when she was one year old, Sanchez was then raised by her grandmother that died when she was five. Soon after her death, Sonia began to stutter. Sanchez struggled with the problem for 12 years. She would later share that writing helped her organize her thoughts and helped her slow down and speak more deliberately, thus discovering her own form of poetry. I like Sanchezs form of writing because she experiments with form, spelling, beats, jazz scats, and more or less manipulates words with rhythms that roll syllable to syllable. Her first two collections of poetry, Home Coming (1969) and We a BaddDDD People (1970), reflect her militant, antiwhite stance, inspired in part by the example of Malcolm X. She incorporates dialect and profanity into her pithy, biting poems, and the tone is usually combative. Sanchez unleashed some of her rage at America's Anglocentric educational system. Her criticisms, however, were followed by suggestions, and she has become a powerful advocate of black studies programs. Sanchez's later poetry volumes are more specifically feminist in orientation, treating Sanchez's personal growth while celebrating women in general. One of her most celebrated volumes is Homegirls Sanchez continues to teach and write in Philadelphia. Black American Women Fiction Writers (Writers of English: Lives and Works), Harold Bloom, ed., 1995. Used by permission of Chelsea House Publishers. The "eye" devices (lowercase letters, speed writing, fluid lines) al...

Thursday, February 27, 2020

What will be the hot jobs in the next decade Research Paper

What will be the hot jobs in the next decade - Research Paper Example Consider the typesetter: the printing press has been around since the mid-1400s, and the people who knew how to work these types of machines enjoyed steady employment until the 1990s when desktop publishing came around. Thus the concept of â€Å"hot jobs†, which is used to describe the best selling jobs in the near future, is not only misleading but also difficult to define. Indeed, predicting the jobs or skills that will be in demand in the future is as tricky as is challenging. Fortunately, information abounds on the internet, literature and from career counselors that enable one to make a good-to-excellent choice. The richest source of job information is the United States Labor Department's 10-year forecast for demand, pay and competition for more than 300 jobs in 45 categories (Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Department of Labor). The department's latest biannual compilation, published last month as the "Occupational Outlook Handbook," is great for sizing up the long-term outlook for most fields. The forecasts have often been prescient—accurately predicting this decade's fast growth in special-education teaching jobs and the widening range of hot health-care careers (Farr and Shatkin, Best Jobs for Your Personality 1; Farr and Shatkin, Best Jobs Without a Four-Year Degree 7; Farr and Shatkin 3). As helpful as the information in these sources may be, predicting the hot jobs for the next decade is still as daunting task. This is more so given that unquantifiable factors such as location, the people you are work with, work condition, and opportunities for growth are very important in job selection. In fact a recent survey by Nature in determining the factors that influence job satisfaction among scientist shows that money is not all that matter (Russo 1106). Indeed, the survey reveals that the â€Å"Degree of independence† at the place of work matters to scientist more than salary. Thus the concept of hot jobs based strictly on quantifiab le parameters such as pay, employment outlook, and job openings may not work for all people (Smaglik 131). However, there is still room for generality. So the question is: generally speaking, what are the hot jobs of the next decade? Are these jobs really â€Å"hot†? This article is an attempt to answer this question. Discussion As unpredictable as the labor market is, figures from the United States Department of Labor can guide us in predicting the hot jobs of the next decade. In the coming decade, engineering, already known for paying college graduates some of the highest starting salaries, is expected to offer the fastest-growing area: biomedical engineering (Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Department of Labor). A job in this field, which centers on developing and testing health-care innovations such as artificial organs or imaging systems, are expected to grow by 72% and offers an annual median salary of $115,270 (Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Department of Labor). Th is is closely followed by network systems and data communications analysts with a projected growth rate of 53.36% and an annual median salary of $112, 000. In fact, Farr and Shatkin (2010) ranked network systems and data communication analytes higher than biomedical engineering given that the network systems and data communication analytes has more annual job openings than biomedical engineering (Farr and Shatkin). Network systems and data analytes perform a number of tasks in relation to data communications systems, like the Internet, including designing, analyzing, testing, and assessing systems and their performance. Analysts might also supervise computer programmers and work as specialists who handle the interfacing of computers and communications